How to install cobblestone – Instructions for installing cobblestone
1. How to install cobblestone on semi dry screed
You can install cobblestone on a sand bed, semi dry screed or concrete bed. Installation on semi dry screed replaces the sand and gravel underlay with cement. The sand bed is mostly used for installing cobblestone in heavy-traffic areas (including car traffic); for low / medium traffic pavings, concrete bed underlay is used. However, to keep away from shifted and cracked screed, a sand and gravel underlay is necessary after the initial excavation.
1. Measure surface with tape measure, then spray the outline for the edging.
2. Remove vegetation from surface.
3. Similar to sand bed installation, have a sand bed on bearing gravel.
4. Dig a trench in the outlined area, considering screed a solid element and stone having a firm stand.
5. Compact and level the sand from the surface (7-8 cm from necessary height).
6. Install kerbstones at the edges, for preventing lateral shifting.
7. Have the screed ready (pre-mixed screed / screed prepared on-site with cement, fine grain sand and water).
8. Pour screed and use “a comb”’; layer thickness is 2 cm. Screed the concrete for a 20° slope (for water drainage).
9. Start installation from a corner. Install stone above the necessary level. Level it with a rubber mallet. You are also allowed to use spacers.
10. Have a guiding string to avoid exceeding the outline.
11. Fill the first row of stones.
12. Check flatness.
13. Install the guiding string in the second row and lay out stones.
14. After installing a couple of rows, check level on both axes and adjust any bumps.
15. Fill the spaces between stones (a mixture of quartz sand and cement will handle perfect the freeze-thaw cycles) and allow screed to reach its potential.
16. Create joints by passing a screwdriver between the stones, to shape some convex trenches. These slopes will allow water drainage, if there is a screed slope. Otherwise, material will crack due to water resting on surface during the freeze-thaw cycles.
17. Remove excess material with a brush.
18. Allow surface to dry.
19. Waterproof surface.
2. How to install cobblestone on concrete bed with adhesive
Cobblestone for small size areas with low / medium traffic can be installed with adhesive on concrete bed.
1. Measure surface and remove vegetation.
2. Set the installation depth.
3. Dig a trench.
4. Pour concrete bed, screeding the concrete for a 20° slope.
5. Allow concrete to cure.
6. When concrete is cured, install with adhesive, as follows:
• spread adhesive on concrete bed
• apply adhesive on cobblestone
• place the cobblestone on underlay by tapping it down with a rubber hammer until reaching the desired water drain slope
• grout joints with waterproof joint grout
• waterproof the cobblestone
3. How to install cobblestone on sand bed
Exterior roads are intended for pedestrian or car traffic. For pedestrian traffic you can use cobblestone of slate, marble, sandstone or granite, usually not travertine, small thickness (3 – 5 cm, even 7 cm) or polygonal stone and for car traffic, sandstone / granite cobblestone with 8 – 10 cm thickness. Road paving is subjected to Law 10/1995 concerning construction quality and the standards SR 6978 / 1995.
Building a cobblestone road should comply with the requirements associated to slope (1.5 – 2.5%), bumps (max 10 mm) and joints width (5-8 mm). For complying with these requirements, cobblestone is installed by 3 methods: sand bed, semi dry screed or concrete bed with adhesive.
Installing cobblestone on sand bed – the standard and most popular method:
• Check drainage – it is essential to avoid water retention beneath the stones, therefore water drainage should be checked
• If necessary, build a water drainage; a concealed ditch might be enough. Some projects will only need cladding a lower area on the side of the road, for water drainage.
• Check utility routes for avoiding intersections.
• Dig trenches for achieving installation depth, associated with drainage system.
• Continue with digging trenches until reaching compact ground and avoiding soft soils. For a pedestrian traffic area, a 5 cm thick gravel bed is enough, which means the trench must be dug up to a depth of 18 – 23 cm. For car traffic and the areas surrounding the pools a bed of 18-20 cm is necessary, thus extending the digging depth. Dig a wider surface if kerbstones are installed on the edges.
• Outline surface with wooden stakes and rope.
• Measure surface (length, width, depth) with measure tape.
• Choose gravel (crushed stone or ballast) for the bearing layer (usually 1.5 – 2 cm size). For two load-bearing layers, choose a gravel with different grain size, lower layer having larger grain size.
• Calculate quantities for gravel and sand according to supplier's info.
• Choose cobblestone. For car traffic over 3.5 t, 8 cm thickness cobblestone is required; traffic below 3.5 t can also use 7 cm thickness cobblestone. Calculate necessary for cobblestone, by adding something extra.
• Outline area with wooden slats.
• Build gravel bed, compact it (use a vibrating plate), then pour over a 2-3 cm sand layer. Level it and compact the area. Lay out the second layer of sand bed.
• Install kerbstones.
• Place cobblestone over second layer of sand. Cobblestone is laid 2 cm above the final level of pavement.
• Press it with a 25 kg rubber mallet or automatically piece by piece, without splashing surface with water. Adjust bumps.
• Spread sand all over the surface, sprinkle with water abundantly, pushing sand into the joints with a brush until filling.
• If necessary, press it again with the rubber mallet.
For further details on cobblestone, do not hesitate to get in touch at +40.318.222.333 or email at email@example.com
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